MN 1: Mūlapariyāyasutta - Discourse on the Root Sequence


Translated by Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu (edited)

The Buddha taught that clinging to views is one of the four forms of clinging that tie the mind to the processes of suffering. He thus recommended that his followers relinquish their clinging, not only to views in their full-blown form as specific positions, but also in their rudimentary form as the categories & relationships that the mind reads into experience. This is a point he makes in the following discourse, which is apparently his response to a particular school of Brahmanical thought that was developing in his time — the Samkhya, or classification school.

This school had its beginnings in the thought of Uddalaka, a ninth-century B.C. philosopher who posited a "root": an abstract principle out of which all things emanated and which was immanent in all things. Philosophers who carried on this line of thinking offered a variety of theories, based on logic and meditative experience, about the nature of the ultimate root and about the hierarchy of the emanation. Many of their theories were recorded in the Upanishads and eventually developed into the classical Samkhya system around the time of the Buddha.

Although the present discourse says nothing about the background of the monks listening to it, the Commentary states that before their ordination they were brahmans, and that even after their ordination they continued to interpret the Buddha's teachings in light of their previous training, which may well have been proto-Samkhya. If this is so, then the Buddha's opening lines — "I will teach you the sequence of the root of all phenomena" — would have them prepared to hear his contribution to their line of thinking. And, in fact, the list of topics he covers reads like a Buddhist Samkhya. Paralleling the classical Samkhya, it contains 24 items, begins with the physical world (here, the four physical properties), and leads back through ever more refined & inclusive levels of being & experience, culminating with the ultimate Buddhist concept: Unbinding (nibbana). In the pattern of Samkhya thought, Unbinding would thus be the ultimate "root" or ground of being immanent in all things and out of which they all emanate.

However, instead of following this pattern of thinking, the Buddha attacks it at its very root: the notion of a principle in the abstract, the "in" (immanence) & "out of" (emanation) superimposed on experience. Only an uninstructed, run of the mill person, he says, would read experience in this way. In contrast, a person in training should look for a different kind of "root" — the root of suffering experienced in the present — and find it in the act of delight. Developing dispassion for that delight, the trainee can then comprehend the process of coming-into-being for what it is, drop all participation in it, and thus achieve true Awakening.

If the listeners present at this discourse were indeed interested in fitting Buddhist teachings into a Samkhyan mold, then it's small wonder that they were displeased — one of the few places where we read of a negative reaction to the Buddha's words. They had hoped to hear his contribution to their project, but instead they hear their whole pattern of thinking & theorizing attacked as ignorant & ill-informed. The Commentary tells us, though, they were later able to overcome their displeasure and eventually attain Awakening on listening to the discourse reported in AN 3.123.

Although at present we rarely think in the same terms as the Samkhya philosophers, there has long been — and still is — a common tendency to create a "Buddhist" metaphysics in which the experience of emptiness, the Unconditioned, the Dharma-body, Buddha-nature, rigpa, etc., is said to function as the ground of being from which the "All" — the entirety of our sensory & mental experience — is said to spring and to which we return when we meditate. Some people think that these theories are the inventions of scholars without any direct meditative experience, but actually they have most often originated among meditators, who label (or in the words of the discourse, "perceive") a particular meditative experience as the ultimate goal, identify with it in a subtle way (as when we are told that "we are the knowing"), and then view that level of experience as the ground of being out of which all other experience comes.

Any teaching that follows these lines would be subject to the same criticism that the Buddha directed against the monks who first heard this discourse.


Evaṃ me sutaṃ— ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā ukkaṭṭhāyaṃ viharati subhagavane sālarājamūle. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi— “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca— “sabbadhammamūlapariyāyaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi. Taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca—

“Idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṃ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṃ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto— pathaviṃ pathavito sañjānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito saññatvā pathaviṃ maññati, pathaviyā maññati, pathavito maññati, pathaviṃ meti maññati, pathaviṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Āpaṃ āpato sañjānāti; āpaṃ āpato saññatvā āpaṃ maññati, āpasmiṃ maññati, āpato maññati, āpaṃ meti maññati, āpaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.

Tejaṃ tejato sañjānāti; tejaṃ tejato saññatvā tejaṃ maññati, tejasmiṃ maññati, tejato maññati, tejaṃ meti maññati, tejaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Vāyaṃ vāyato sañjānāti; vāyaṃ vāyato saññatvā vāyaṃ maññati, vāyasmiṃ maññati, vāyato maññati, vāyaṃ meti maññati, vāyaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Bhūte bhūtato sañjānāti; bhūte bhūtato saññatvā bhūte maññati, bhūtesu maññati, bhūtato maññati, bhūte meti maññati, bhūte abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.

Deve devato sañjānāti; deve devato saññatvā deve maññati, devesu maññati, devato maññati, deve meti maññati, deve abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Pajāpatiṃ pajāpatito sañjānāti; pajāpatiṃ pajāpatito saññatvā pajāpatiṃ maññati, pajāpatismiṃ maññati, pajāpatito maññati, pajāpatiṃ meti maññati, pajāpatiṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Brahmaṃ brahmato sañjānāti; brahmaṃ brahmato saññatvā brahmaṃ maññati, brahmasmiṃ maññati, brahmato maññati, brahmaṃ meti maññati, brahmaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.

Ābhassare ābhassarato sañjānāti; ābhassare ābhassarato saññatvā ābhassare maññati, ābhassaresu maññati, ābhassarato maññati, ābhassare meti maññati, ābhassare abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Subhakiṇhe subhakiṇhato sañjānāti; subhakiṇhe subhakiṇhato saññatvā subhakiṇhe maññati, subhakiṇhesu maññati, subhakiṇhato maññati, subhakiṇhe meti maññati, subhakiṇhe abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.



Vehapphale vehapphalato sañjānāti; vehapphale vehapphalato saññatvā vehapphale maññati, vehapphalesu maññati, vehapphalato maññati, vehapphale meti maññati, vehapphale abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Abhibhuṃ abhibhuto sañjānāti; abhibhuṃ abhibhuto saññatvā abhibhuṃ maññati, abhibhusmiṃ maññati, abhibhuto maññati, abhibhuṃ meti maññati, abhibhuṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ ākāsānañcāyatanato sañjānāti; ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ ākāsānañcāyatanato saññatvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ maññati, ākāsānañcāyatanasmiṃ maññati, ākāsānañcāyatanato maññati, ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ meti maññati, ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ viññāṇañcāyatanato sañjānāti; viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ viññāṇañcāyatanato saññatvā viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ maññati, viññāṇañcāyatanasmiṃ maññati, viññāṇañcāyatanato maññati, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ meti maññati, viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.



Ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ ākiñcaññāyatanato sañjānāti; ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ ākiñcaññāyatanato saññatvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ maññati, ākiñcaññāyatanasmiṃ maññati, ākiñcaññāyatanato maññati, ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ meti maññati, ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.



Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanato sañjānāti; nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanato saññatvā nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ maññati, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasmiṃ maññati, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanato maññati, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ meti maññati, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.



Diṭṭhaṃ diṭṭhato sañjānāti; diṭṭhaṃ diṭṭhato saññatvā diṭṭhaṃ maññati, diṭṭhasmiṃ maññati, diṭṭhato maññati, diṭṭhaṃ meti maññati, diṭṭhaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.



Sutaṃ sutato sañjānāti; sutaṃ sutato saññatvā sutaṃ maññati, sutasmiṃ maññati, sutato maññati, sutaṃ meti maññati, sutaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Mutaṃ mutato sañjānāti; mutaṃ mutato saññatvā mutaṃ maññati, mutasmiṃ maññati, mutato maññati, mutaṃ meti maññati, mutaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Viññātaṃ viññātato sañjānāti; viññātaṃ viññātato saññatvā viññātaṃ maññati, viññātasmiṃ maññati, viññātato maññati, viññātaṃ meti maññati, viññātaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Ekattaṃ ekattato sañjānāti; ekattaṃ ekattato saññatvā ekattaṃ maññati, ekattasmiṃ maññati, ekattato maññati, ekattaṃ meti maññati, ekattaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Nānattaṃ nānattato sañjānāti; nānattaṃ nānattato saññatvā nānattaṃ maññati, nānattasmiṃ maññati, nānattato maññati, nānattaṃ meti maññati, nānattaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.

Sabbaṃ sabbato sañjānāti; sabbaṃ sabbato saññatvā sabbaṃ maññati, sabbasmiṃ maññati, sabbato maññati, sabbaṃ meti maññati, sabbaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.

Nibbānaṃ nibbānato sañjānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato saññatvā nibbānaṃ maññati, nibbānasmiṃ maññati, nibbānato maññati, nibbānaṃ meti maññati, nibbānaṃ abhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Apariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sekkho appattamānaso anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ patthayamāno viharati, sopi pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ mā maññi, pathaviyā mā maññi, pathavito mā maññi, pathaviṃ meti mā maññi, pathaviṃ mābhinandi. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññeyyaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ mā maññi, nibbānasmiṃ mā maññi, nibbānato mā maññi, nibbānaṃ meti mā maññi, nibbānaṃ mābhinandi. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññeyyaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.







Yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññāvimutto, sopi pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.


Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññātaṃ tassā’ti vadāmi.







Yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññā vimutto, sopi pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā rāgassa, vītarāgattā.

Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā rāgassa, vītarāgattā.

Yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññāvimutto, sopi pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā dosassa, vītadosattā.

Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā dosassa, vītadosattā.

Yopi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññāvimutto, sopi pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā mohassa, vītamohattā.

Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Khayā mohassa, vītamohattā.

Tathāgatopi, bhikkhave, arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññātantaṃ tathāgatassā’ti vadāmi.


Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Pariññātantaṃ tathāgatassā’ti vadāmi.








Tathāgatopi, bhikkhave, arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pathaviṃ pathavito abhijānāti; pathaviṃ pathavito abhiññāya pathaviṃ na maññati, pathaviyā na maññati, pathavito na maññati, pathaviṃ meti na maññati, pathaviṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Nandī dukkhassa mūlan’ti— iti viditvā ‘bhavā jāti bhūtassa jarāmaraṇan’ti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ‘tathāgato sabbaso taṇhānaṃ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti vadāmi.


Āpaṃ…pe… tejaṃ… vāyaṃ… bhūte… deve… pajāpatiṃ… brahmaṃ… ābhassare… subhakiṇhe… vehapphale… abhibhuṃ… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ… viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ… ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ… diṭṭhaṃ… sutaṃ… mutaṃ… viññātaṃ… ekattaṃ… nānattaṃ… sabbaṃ… nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhijānāti; nibbānaṃ nibbānato abhiññāya nibbānaṃ na maññati, nibbānasmiṃ na maññati, nibbānato na maññati, nibbānaṃ meti na maññati, nibbānaṃ nābhinandati. Taṃ kissa hetu? ‘Nandī dukkhassa mūlan’ti— iti viditvā ‘bhavā jāti bhūtassa jarāmaraṇan’ti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ‘tathāgato sabbaso taṇhānaṃ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti vadāmī”ti.

Idamavoca bhagavā. Na te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Ukkaṭṭha, in the shade of a royal Sal tree in the Very Blessed Grove. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!". "Yes, lord," the monks responded. The Blessed One said, "Monks, I will teach you the root sequence of all phenomena. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak." "As you say, sir," they responded. The Blessed One said:

"There is the case, monks, where an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person — who has no regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma — perceives earth as earth. Perceiving earth as earth, he conceives [things] about earth, he conceives [things] in earth, he conceives [things] coming out of earth, he conceives earth as 'mine,' he delights in earth. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives water as water. Perceiving water as water, he conceives things about water, he conceives things in water, he conceives things coming out of water, he conceives water as 'mine,' he delights in water. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives fire as fire. Perceiving fire as fire, he conceives things about fire, he conceives things in fire, he conceives things coming out of fire, he conceives fire as 'mine,' he delights in fire. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives wind as wind1. Perceiving wind as wind, he conceives things about wind, he conceives things in wind, he conceives things coming out of wind, he conceives wind as 'mine,' he delights in wind. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives beings as beings. Perceiving beings as beings, he conceives things about beings, he conceives things in beings, he conceives things coming out of beings, he conceives beings as 'mine,' he delights in beings. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives gods as gods. Perceiving gods as gods, he conceives things about gods, he conceives things in gods, he conceives things coming out of gods, he conceives gods as 'mine,' he delights in gods. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives Pajāpati as Pajāpati. Perceiving Pajāpati as Pajāpati, he conceives things about Pajāpati, he conceives things in Pajāpati, he conceives things coming out of Pajāpati, he conceives Pajāpati as 'mine,' he delights in Pajāpati. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives Brahma as Brahma. Perceiving Brahma as Brahma, he conceives things about Brahma, he conceives things in Brahma, he conceives things coming out of Brahma, he conceives Brahma as 'mine,' he delights in Brahma. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the luminous gods as the luminous gods. Perceiving the luminous gods as the luminous gods, he conceives things about the luminous gods, he conceives things in the luminous gods, he conceives things coming out of the luminous gods, he conceives the luminous gods as 'mine,' he delights in the luminous gods. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the gods of refulgent glory as the gods of refulgent glory. Perceiving the gods of refulgent glory as the gods of refulgent glory, he conceives things about the gods of refulgent glory, he conceives things in the gods of refulgent glory, he conceives things coming out of the gods of refulgent glory, he conceives the gods of refulgent glory as 'mine,' he delights in the gods of refulgent glory. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the gods of abundant fruit as the gods of abundant fruit. Perceiving the gods of abundant fruit as the gods of abundant fruit, he conceives things about the gods of abundant fruit, he conceives things in the gods of abundant fruit, he conceives things coming out of the gods of abundant fruit, he conceives the gods of abundant fruit as 'mine,' he delights in the gods of abundant fruit. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the Great Being2 as the Great Being. Perceiving the Great Being as the Great Being, he conceives things about the Great Being, he conceives things in the Great Being, he conceives things coming out of the Great Being, he conceives the Great Being as 'mine,' he delights in the Great Being. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the dimension of the infinitude of space as the dimension of the infinitude of space. Perceiving the dimension of the infinitude of space as the dimension of the infinitude of space, he conceives things about the dimension of the infinitude of space, he conceives things in the dimension of the infinitude of space, he conceives things coming out of the dimension of the infinitude of space, he conceives the dimension of the infinitude of space as 'mine,' he delights in the dimension of the infinitude of space. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. Perceiving the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, he conceives things about the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, he conceives things in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, he conceives things coming out of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, he conceives the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as 'mine,' he delights in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the dimension of nothingness as the dimension of nothingness. Perceiving the dimension of nothingness as the dimension of nothingness, he conceives things about the dimension of nothingness, he conceives things in the dimension of nothingness, he conceives things coming out of the dimension of nothingness, he conceives the dimension of nothingness as 'mine,' he delights in the dimension of nothingness. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception3 as the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Perceiving the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives things about the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives things in the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives things coming out of the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he conceives the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as 'mine,' he delights in the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the seen as the seen. Perceiving the seen as the seen, he conceives things about the seen, he conceives things in the seen, he conceives things coming out of the seen, he conceives the seen as 'mine,' he delights in the seen. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the heard as the heard. Perceiving the heard as the heard, he conceives things about the heard, he conceives things in the heard, he conceives things coming out of the heard, he conceives the heard as 'mine,' he delights in the heard. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the sensed as the sensed. Perceiving the sensed as the sensed, he conceives things about the sensed, he conceives things in the sensed, he conceives things coming out of the sensed, he conceives the sensed as 'mine,' he delights in the sensed. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the cognized4 as the cognized. Perceiving the cognized as the cognized, he conceives things about the cognized, he conceives things in the cognized, he conceives things coming out of the cognized, he conceives the cognized as 'mine,' he delights in the cognized. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives singleness as singleness. Perceiving singleness as singleness, he conceives things about singleness, he conceives things in singleness, he conceives things coming out of singleness, he conceives singleness as 'mine,' he delights in singleness. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives multiplicity5 as multiplicity. Perceiving multiplicity as multiplicity, he conceives things about multiplicity, he conceives things in multiplicity, he conceives things coming out of multiplicity, he conceives multiplicity as 'mine,' he delights in multiplicity. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives the All6 as the All. Perceiving the All as the All, he conceives things about the All, he conceives things in the All, he conceives things coming out of the All, he conceives the All as 'mine,' he delights in the All. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"He perceives Unbinding as Unbinding.7 Perceiving Unbinding as Unbinding, he conceives things about Unbinding, he conceives things in Unbinding, he conceives things coming out of Unbinding, he conceives Unbinding as 'mine,' he delights in Unbinding. Why is that? Because he has not comprehended it, I tell you.

"A monk who is a trainee — yearning for the unexcelled relief from bondage, his aspirations as yet unfulfilled — directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, let him not conceive things about earth, let him not conceive things in earth, let him not conceive things coming out of earth, let him not conceive earth as 'mine,' let him not delight in earth. Why is that? So that he may comprehend it, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... fire as fire... wind as wind... beings as beings... gods as gods... Pajapati as Pajapati... Brahma as Brahma... the luminous gods as luminous gods... the gods of refulgent glory as gods of refulgent glory... the gods of abundant fruit as the gods of abundant fruit... the Great Being as the Great Being... the dimension of the infinitude of space as the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness as the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception... the seen as the seen... the heard as the heard... the sensed as the sensed... the cognized as the cognized... singleness as singleness... multiplicity as multiplicity... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, let him not conceive things about Unbinding, let him not conceive things in Unbinding, let him not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, let him not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' let him not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? So that he may comprehend it, I tell you.

"A monk who is a Worthy One, devoid of mental fermentations — who has attained completion, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, destroyed the fetters of becoming, and is released through right knowledge — directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has comprehended it, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... fire as fire... wind as wind... beings as beings... gods as gods... Pajapati as Pajapati... Brahma as Brahma... the luminous gods as luminous gods... the gods of refulgent glory as gods of refulgent glory... the gods of abundant fruit as the gods of abundant fruit... the Great Being as the Great Being... the dimension of the infinitude of space as the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness as the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception... the seen as the seen... the heard as the heard... the sensed as the sensed... the cognized as the cognized... singleness as singleness... multiplicity as multiplicity... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because he has comprehended it, I tell you.

"A monk who is a Worthy One, devoid of mental fermentations... directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because, with the ending of passion, he is devoid of passion, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because, with the ending of passion, he is devoid of passion, I tell you.

"A monk who is a Worthy One, devoid of mental fermentations... directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because, with the ending of aversion, he is devoid of aversion, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because, with the ending of aversion, he is devoid of aversion, I tell you.

"A monk who is a Worthy One, devoid of mental fermentations... directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because, with the ending of delusion, he is devoid of delusion, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because, with the ending of delusion, he is devoid of delusion, I tell you.

"The Tathagata — a worthy one, rightly self-awakened — directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has comprehended it to the end, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... fire as fire... wind as wind... beings as beings... gods as gods... Pajapati as Pajapati... Brahma as Brahma... the luminous gods as luminous gods... the gods of refulgent glory as gods of refulgent glory... the gods of abundant fruit as the gods of abundant fruit... the Great Being as the Great Being... the dimension of the infinitude of space as the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness as the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness as the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception as the dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception... the seen as the seen... the heard as the heard... the sensed as the sensed... the cognized as the cognized... singleness as singleness... multiplicity as multiplicity... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has comprehended it to the end, I tell you.

"The Tathagata — a worthy one, rightly self-awakened — directly knows earth as earth. Directly knowing earth as earth, he does not conceive things about earth, does not conceive things in earth, does not conceive things coming out of earth, does not conceive earth as 'mine,' does not delight in earth. Why is that? Because he has known that delight is the root of suffering & stress, that from coming-into-being there is birth, and that for what has come into being there is aging & death. Therefore, with the total ending, fading away, cessation, letting go, relinquishment of craving, the Tathagata has totally awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening, I tell you.

"He directly knows water as water... the All as the All... He directly knows Unbinding as Unbinding. Directly knowing Unbinding as Unbinding, he does not conceive things about Unbinding, does not conceive things in Unbinding, does not conceive things coming out of Unbinding, does not conceive Unbinding as 'mine,' does not delight in Unbinding. Why is that? Because he has known that delight is the root of suffering & stress, that from coming-into-being there is birth, and that for what has come into being there is aging & death. Therefore, with the total ending, fading away, cessation, letting go, relinquishment of craving, the Tathagata has totally awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening, I tell you."

That is what the Blessed One said. Displeased, the monks did not delight in the Blessed One's words.